Who's Who - Mehmed Djaved Bey
Mehmed Djaved Bey (1875-1926), although never close to the Young Turk leadership, nevertheless provided a vital role in securing loans for the Turkish government prior to and during the First World War.
Both a civil servant and politician Djaved was the first Committee of Union and Progress member to serve at Cabinet rank, serving as Finance Minister from 1909-11.
Returning to government in 1914 - again as Finance Minister - Djaved's tenure in office was on this occasion brief, resigning in November 1914 in protest at the Ottoman decision to ally itself with the Central Powers and declare war with the Entente Powers.
Out of office Djaved remained influential however, continuing to serve on the Committee of Union and Progress's executive council. Although he was not a close associate of leaders including Enver Pasha Djaved ensured his continued place at the heart of financial administration through his remarkable ability to raise funds.
Djaved managed to secure continued rounds of fresh funding from Turkey's allies - chiefly Germany - without making Turkey in any way economically dependent upon them. He declined to give way to German demands intended upon post-war economic concessions, periodically using the threat of loan non-repayment to silence German pressure.
Djaved resumed his Cabinet post in February 1917, remaining in office even when the government collapsed in October 1918. Nevertheless forced into exile the following month he later returned to republican Turkey in 1922. He was later executed for subversion by the Kemal regime in 1926.
A sandbag was a sack filled with earth from which defences were built.
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