On This Day - 9 December 1915
Theatre definitions: Western Front comprises the Franco-German-Belgian front and any military action in Great Britain, Switzerland, Scandinavia and Holland. Eastern Front comprises the German-Russian, Austro-Russian and Austro-Romanian fronts. Southern Front comprises the Austro-Italian and Balkan (including Bulgaro-Romanian) fronts, and Dardanelles. Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres comprises Egypt, Tripoli, the Sudan, Asia Minor (including Transcaucasia), Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, China, India, etc. Naval and Overseas Operations comprises operations on the seas (except where carried out in combination with troops on land) and in Colonial and Overseas theatres, America, etc. Political, etc. comprises political and internal events in all countries, including Notes, speeches, diplomatic, financial, economic and domestic matters. Source: Chronology of the War (1914-18, London; copyright expired)
Fighting in Champagne, initiative with Allies.
General Castelnau appointed Chief of Staff and Commander French front.
Artillery activity on Riga front, gas attack by Germans.
Retreat of Allies from Vardar. British lose eight miles of ground, 1,500 casualties.
Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres
Russians occupy Sultan Bulak Pass (Persia); Turco-German mercenaries routed.
Persian rebels and mercenaries defeated by Russians in Hamadan.
Herr Scheidemann declares in Reichstag Socialists refuse discuss cession Alsace Lorraine.
M. Venizelos replies to King Constantine in "Times".