On This Day - 23 July 1916
Theatre definitions: Western Front comprises the Franco-German-Belgian front and any military action in Great Britain, Switzerland, Scandinavia and Holland. Eastern Front comprises the German-Russian, Austro-Russian and Austro-Romanian fronts. Southern Front comprises the Austro-Italian and Balkan (including Bulgaro-Romanian) fronts, and Dardanelles. Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres comprises Egypt, Tripoli, the Sudan, Asia Minor (including Transcaucasia), Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, China, India, etc. Naval and Overseas Operations comprises operations on the seas (except where carried out in combination with troops on land) and in Colonial and Overseas theatres, America, etc. Political, etc. comprises political and internal events in all countries, including Notes, speeches, diplomatic, financial, economic and domestic matters. Source: Chronology of the War (1914-18, London; copyright expired)
Second phase of Somme Battle begins.
Intense fighting in and round Pozieres; British recapture whole of Longueval, but Germans retake north end of village.
Outskirts of Guillemont twice change hands.
Kuropatkin's troops drive Germans back south-east of Riga.
Russians advance 12 miles near Kemmern.
Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres
Russians steadily close in on Erzingan (Armenia); the Turks retreat.
Naval and Overseas Operations
Running fight in North Sea near mouth of Scheldt between British ships and six enemy destroyers; no decisive results.
Naval force occupies Pangani (East Africa).
M. Sazonov, Russian Foreign Minister, resigns, and is succeeded by M. Sturmer.