On This Day - 31 October 1916
Theatre definitions: Western Front comprises the Franco-German-Belgian front and any military action in Great Britain, Switzerland, Scandinavia and Holland. Eastern Front comprises the German-Russian, Austro-Russian and Austro-Romanian fronts. Southern Front comprises the Austro-Italian and Balkan (including Bulgaro-Romanian) fronts, and Dardanelles. Asiatic and Egyptian Theatres comprises Egypt, Tripoli, the Sudan, Asia Minor (including Transcaucasia), Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Persia, Afghanistan, Turkestan, China, India, etc. Naval and Overseas Operations comprises operations on the seas (except where carried out in combination with troops on land) and in Colonial and Overseas theatres, America, etc. Political, etc. comprises political and internal events in all countries, including Notes, speeches, diplomatic, financial, economic and domestic matters. Source: Chronology of the War (1914-18, London; copyright expired)
Austrians checked at Torzburg, but successful in Predeal Pass.
Russians repulse Germans in Narajowka Valley (Galicia), but fall back at Mieczysczow.
Southern FrontStruma front, British take Barakli Juma (in front of Rupel Pass), also Kumli.
Naval and Overseas Operations
British reorganised into two divisions (Hoskins and van Deventer), former about Kilwa, latter on Ruaha and Central Railway, Northey about Iringa.