Primary Documents - 1919
This page of the Primary Documents section of the website collects together archive source documents originating in 1919, the year which saw the Treaty of Versailles forced upon a reluctant Germany.
Included among the following documents is the text of the Versailles treaty, plus the text of prominent U.S. opposition to President Wilson's enthusiastic backing for a post-war League of Nations.
The list presented below - with each entry accompanied by a brief summary of its significance - is sorted by date, with earlier documents listed first.
|Poincare's Welcoming Address at Versailles||January - French President's welcoming comments|
|One||January - U.S. President's initial comments|
|Lloyd George's Opening Address at Versailles||January - British Prime Minister's initial comments|
|Sonnino's Opening Address at Versailles||January - Italian Prime Minister's initial comments|
|Clemenceau's Opening Address at Versailles||January - French Prime Minister's initial comments|
|Huddleston on Opening of Peace Conference||January - British observer's account of initial session|
|U.S. Recognition of Polish Government||January - Robert Lansing's announcement|
|President Ebert's Opening Assembly Address||February - New German President's initial address|
|President Ebert's Second Assembly Address||February - New German President's follow-up address|
|Saunders on the New German Constitution||February - British eye-witness journalist's account|
|Ludendorff on Being 'Stabbed in the Back'||February - Former German leader's allegations|
|Newspaper Interview with Josef Pilsudski||February - French journalist's interview with Polish leader|
|Hindenburg on Kaiser Wilhelm's Abdication||March - German Army Chief of Staff's account|
|Douglas Haig's Final Despatch||March - British Commander-in-Chief's final war report|
|Bulgarian Peace Delegation on Atrocities||May - Statement repudiating charges of atrocities|
|Commission to Determine War Guilt||May - Formal report blaming Central Powers|
|German Protest at Peace Terms||May - Germany's response at proposed terms|
|Allied Reply to German Protest on Terms||May - Clemenceau's reply to German protests|
|Dutch Editorial Against Versailles||May - Neutral newspaper's stance against peace terms|
|Ignace Paderewski on Paris Peace Conference||May - Polish Prime Minister's positive assessment|
|Treaty of Versailles||June - Allies' peace terms with defeated Germany|
|Account of Versailles Signing Ceremony||June - Account by U.S. newspaper journalist|
|President Wilson on League of Nations||July - One of Wilson's final speeches in support of League|
|Henry Cabot Lodge on League of Nations||August - Senate majority leader's opposition|
|Herbert Hoover on Polish Reconstruction||August - Hoover's pessimistic assessment|
|Pershing's Despatch of September 1919||September - U.S. AEF Commander-in-Chief's official report|
|Pershing on Ferdinand Foch as Commander||September - U.S. C-in-C's view of Foch's appointment|
|Ignace Paderewski on League of Nations||September - Polish Prime Minister's lobbying in favour|
|Pershing on Meuse-Argonne Offensive||November - U.S. C-in-C's account of key offensive|
|Maurice on Why the Allies Accepted Peace||1919 - Former British Director of Military Ops' account|
|Ludendorff on Second Battle of the Marne||1919 - German strategist's post-war view of Allied attacks|
|Covenant of League of Nations||1919-24 - 26 articles of the covenant|
"Toc Emmas" was slang for trench mortars.
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