Primary Documents - 1915

Photograph of Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett's original letter to British Prime Minister Herbert Asquith highlighting his concerns at the conduct of the Gallipoli campaign This page of the Primary Documents section of the website collects together archive source documents originating in 1915, the first full year of the war.

Included among the 1915 documents are America's repeated formal protests to the German government regarding the latter's sinking of the Lusitania.  Also available is the text of an influential letter sent by journalist Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett to the British Prime Minister highlighting concerns relating to the prosecution of the war on the Gallipoli peninsular.

The list presented below - with each entry accompanied by a brief summary of its significance -  is sorted by date, with earlier documents listed first.

Document Description
Article21 Demands of China by Japan January - Japanese attempt to gain hegemony over China
ArticleGerman Admiralty Declaration January - German threat to sink neutral shipping
ArticleDeclaration of Naval Blockade of Britain (1) February - German Declaration, quickly withdrawn
ArticleDeclaration of Naval Blockade of Britain (2) February - Alfred von Tirpitz's criticism of declaration
ArticleDeclaration of Naval Blockade of Britain (3) February - Prince von Bulow's support for declaration
ArticleU.S. Strict Accountability Warning February - President Wilson's warning to Germany
ArticleBritish Report on Battle of Neuve Chapelle March - Writer's flawed commentary on failed attack
ArticleGerman Report on Battle of Neuve Chapelle March - Magazine commentary highlighting British losses
ArticleAnglo-French on Attack on Dardanelles (1) March - U.S. Ambassador to Turkey's Thoughts
ArticleAnglo-French on Attack on Dardanelles (2) March - Journalist Henry Nevinson's Account
ArticleTalaat Pasha's Armenian Massacre Orders March - Talaat Pasha's written orders from March 1915
ArticleThe Austrian Surrender of Przemysl March - Austro-Hungarian Minister of War's account
ArticleGrand Duke Nikolai on the Carpathian Battle April - Russian Commander-in-Chief's account
ArticleTreaty of London April - Allied attempt to bring Italy into the war
ArticleAugust von Mackensen on Gorlice-Tarnow May - The German Field Marshal's account of the battle
ArticleGerman Press Report on Gorlice-Tarnow May - German press release gloating in victory
ArticleBryce Report on German Atrocities May - British report into German atrocities in Belgium
ArticleFirst U.S. Protest Over Lusitania Sinking May - First official U.S. reaction to loss of Lusitania
ArticleAlexander von Krobatin on Gorlice-Tarnow May - Austro-Hungarian Minister of War's reaction
ArticleItaly's Entry into the War May - Italian Prime Minister's declaration
ArticleBritish Account of Gorlice-Tarnow May - Written by British observer with Russian Army
ArticleBritish Review of Lusitania Sinking May - Official Law Court's Review
ArticleAustrian Declaration of War with Italy May - Franz Josef's formal declaration of war
ArticleGerman Reaction to Italian War Declaration May - German Chancellor's formal reaction
ArticleGerman Response to Lusitania Sinking May - Foreign Minister von Jagow's note to U.S.
ArticleSecond U.S. Protest Over Lusitania Sinking May - President Wilson's second note to Germany
ArticleGrand Duke Nikolai on Gorlice-Tarnow June - Russian Commander-in-Chief's account
ArticleSir John French on German Use of Gas June - British Commander-in-Chief's official report
ArticleGerman Justification for Use of Poison Gas June - Official German press statement
ArticleAustrian Protest Re: U.S. Munitions June - Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister's note
ArticleThird U.S. Protest Over Lusitania Sinking July - President Wilson's third note to Germany
ArticleGerman Account of the Fall of Warsaw August - German General's account
ArticleLord Kitchener on the Battle of Sari Bair August - Minister of War's official report
ArticleSir Ian Hamilton on the Battle of Sari Bair August - Commander-in-Chief's official report
ArticleAshmead-Bartlett on the Battle of Sari Bair August - British journalist's account
ArticleGerman Officer on the Battle of Sari Bair August - Aide to Liman von Sanders' account
ArticleU.S. Reply to Austrian Munitions Protest August - Secretary of State Robert Lansing's note
ArticleTsar Nicholas II Becomes Army C-in-C September - Tsar assumes command of his armies
ArticleEllis Ashmead-Bartlett's Letter to Asquith September - Australian war correspondent's despair
ArticleRobert Lansing on the 'Dumba Affair' September - U.S. demand for Austria's recall of Dr. Dumba
ArticleDr. Dumba on the 'Dumba Affair' September - Constantin Dumba's official statement
ArticleFrench Govt. on Champagne Offensive September - Upbeat government statement on progress
Articlevon Falkenhayn on Champagne Offensive September - German Army Chief of Staff's account
ArticleCount Bernstorff on Alleged German Spying September - Account of Germany's Ambassador to U.S.
ArticleGerman Govt. on Champagne Offensive October - German government's dismissive statement
ArticleRussia's Declaration of War with Bulgaria October - Russian declaration of hostilities
ArticleBulgaria's Entry into the War October - Bulgarian Prime Minister's rationale for war
ArticleDaily Telegraph Report on Bulgaria's Plans October - Account of an opposition meeting with the Tsar
ArticleBrand Whitlock on Edith Cavell October - U.S. Ambassador's appeal to Germany
ArticleMaitre G. de Leval on Edith Cavell October - Belgian councillor's report
ArticleHugh Gibson on Edith Cavell October - Secretary of U.S. Legation to Belgium's report
ArticleStirling Gahan on Edith Cavell October - British chaplain's account of visit to see Cavell
ArticleArthur Zimmermann on Edith Cavell October - Official German view of Cavell's execution
ArticleParis Mail Article on 1st Battle of Ypres October - Anniversary celebration of British action
ArticleBryce Report into the Armenian Massacre October - British government report indicting Turkey
ArticleErich von Falkenhayn on the Fall of Serbia November - German Army Chief of Staff's account
ArticleGeneral von Cramon on the Fall of Serbia November - German General's summary
ArticleFrench Memorandum for Joint Action December - Request for combined action at Chantilly

A "Grand Slam" was British slang for an impending attack or battle.

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Primary Docs